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Psychological neoplasms of adolescence

Cognitive development in adolescence. The younger adolescence is characterized by an increase in cognitive activity (the “peak of curiosity” falls on 11-12 years), the expansion of cognitive interests.

In adolescence, the intellectual processes of a teenager are actively being improved. In Western psychology, the development of intelligence in adolescence is considered from the point of view of improving its structure: there is a transition to formal logical

operations (J. Piaget). In Russian psychology, within the framework of a system-functional approach, it is believed that in adolescence, the central, or leading, function is the development of thinking, the function of the formation of concepts. Under the influence of training, the assimilation of more generalized knowledge and the foundations of sciences, higher mental functions are gradually transformed into well-organized, arbitrarily controlled processes. Changes in the cognitive sphere affect the attitude of adolescents to the surrounding reality, as well as the development of the personality as a whole.

Perception becomes selective, focused, analytical and synthetic activity. All the main parameters of attention are qualitatively improved: volume, stability, intensity, the possibility of distribution and switching; it turns out to be a controlled, arbitrary process. Memory is internally mediated by logical operations; memorization and reproduction acquire a semantic character. Increases memory, selectivity and accuracy of mnemonic activity. Thinking processes are gradually being rebuilt - operating with concrete ideas is replaced by theoretical thinking. Theoretical discursive (reasoning) thinking is based on the ability to operate with concepts, to compare them, to move from one judgment to another in the course of reflection. In connection with the development of independent thinking, the transition to initiative cognitive activity, individual differences in intellectual activity intensify.

The ideal model presented above, of that level of mental and personal development, which, under favorable conditions (training and education) every teenager must achieve, is far from always realized.

A comprehensive study conducted in middle and high school, showed that the achievements of many students are very far from theoretically possible.

Real seventh graders have a low level of general mental development.
Cognitive need is poor and monotonous, entertaining and passive forms of satisfaction satisfy it. Common cultural interests are quite broad and unstable. Pupils rely on the methods of mechanical memorization, not using enough techniques of semantic memorization. They do not have sufficient intellectual abilities and skills (verbal analysis, generalization, figurative analysis and synthesis). Theoretical conceptual thinking is underdeveloped. The personal characteristics of secondary school students indicate a low level of self-regulation, pronounced school anxiety, self-doubt, emotional fatigue, and a mismatch of the level of claims with the students' capabilities.

Not knowing how and / or not wanting to learn, not understanding the need for this, a teenager spends a lot of time and effort on homework, experiences overload, lack of joy and negative feelings for learning. The reasons for poor performance in the middle classes are associated with the lack of adequate motivation for learning, with a shift in emphasis on the formal elements of educational activity. The stigma of “unpromising”, the blaming position of teachers and the self-blaming position of children complete the “problem” of successful learning and intellectual development in adolescence.

Older adolescents (9-10th grade) as a whole showed a slightly higher, but completely insufficient level of intellectual and personal development. Moreover, the individual results of individual students can be very impressive.

Of crucial importance for the development of theoretical thinking and logical memory is the organization and motivation of educational activity in the middle classes of the school, the content of curricula, the system of methods for supplying educational material and monitoring its assimilation.
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Psychological neoplasms of adolescence

  1. Leading activities and psychological neoplasms of age
    The adolescent period itself is rather heterogeneous in its psychological content and significance for the adolescent. It is unlikely that anyone will argue that students in the 6th and 8th grades are very similar to each other in their psychological appearance. At the same time, both of them are teenagers. Therefore, within adolescence, it is customary to distinguish the younger adolescent (10-13 years), or grades 5-6, and the senior
  2. Psychological characteristics of adolescence
    A well-known domestic teacher A.P. Krakovsky, comparing the behaviors of primary schoolchildren and younger adolescents, whose age difference is only one year, states that adolescents are 6 times more stubborn in comparison with their younger comrades, 9 times more likely to flaunt their shortcomings, 10 times more often contrast themselves with their parents. Total amount
  3. The main psychological neoplasms of a person aged 13-17 years
    Neoplasms According to a psychological study in 1927. According to a psychological study in 1987. 1. Puberty. The natural roots of a developing person; a ripening appears its new appearance. This is the rebirth of man. A huge number of any ailments originates at this age. The birth of a new psyche is “suddenly” revealed inwardness.
  4. The crisis of 7 years and psychological neoplasms of preschool age
    We are already well aware that psychological formations are the product of critical periods in the mental development of the child, the so-called developmental crises. The crisis of years occurs at the border of preschool and primary school age. The main symptoms of this crisis include: - loss of immediacy: the child begins to understand what this or that may cost him personally
    The boundaries of adolescence are quite uncertain (from 9-11 to 14-15 years). Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later. The social situation of development Adolescence “begins” with a change in the social situation of development. In psychology, this period is called a transitional, difficult, critical age. This age was investigated by many prominent psychologists. First
    Adolescence is associated with the restructuring of the child's body - puberty. Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later, a puberty crisis can occur at 11 or 13 years old. Beginning with a crisis, the entire period is usually difficult for both the child and adults close to him. Therefore, adolescence is sometimes called protracted
  7. Adolescence (11-15 years)
    Adolescence is associated with the restructuring of the child's body - puberty. And although the lines of mental and physiological development do not go parallel, the boundaries of this period are rather vague. Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later, a puberty crisis can occur at 11 and 13 years old. Beginning with a crisis, the entire period is usually difficult for the child,
    Adolescence is associated with the restructuring of the child's body - puberty. And although the lines of mental and physiological development do not go parallel, the boundaries of this period vary significantly. Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later, a puberty crisis can occur at 11 or 13 years old. Beginning with a crisis, the entire period is usually difficult for the child,
  9. The crisis of adolescence
    A detailed analysis of foreign concepts of the causes and manifestations of the crisis of adolescence was carried out by D. I. Feldstein [15]. He indicates that the first who drew attention to a new social phenomenon - the teenage period of development, was J. Zh. Rousseau. In his novel Emil, published in 1762, he first drew attention to the psychological significance that this period has in human life. Russo
    Adolescence is the most difficult and difficult of all childhood ages, which is a period of personality formation. At this age, the foundations of morality are being formed, social attitudes are formed, attitude towards oneself, towards people, towards society. In addition, at a given age, character traits and the main forms of interpersonal behavior are stabilized. Among the many personality traits inherent in
    In the structure of morbidity and mortality from cancer, tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues occupy 7–9% depending on gender and age. Every year, out of every 100 thousand inhabitants of our planet, 9 people get some form of leukemia, but in the age groups over 65, 69 out of 100 thousand people get sick. Etiology and pathogenesis of neoplasms of lymphohemopoietic
  12. ADOLESCENCE (13 - 16 years old)
    The adolescent period is not distinguished in all societies, but only with a high level of civilization. Industrial development leads to the fact that more and more time is required for public and professional education of children and, accordingly, the expansion of the framework of adolescence. The literature describes under different names: adolescent, transitional, puberty, puberty,
  13. Leading activities in adolescence
    The teenager continues to be a schoolboy; educational activity remains relevant, but psychologically recedes into the background. The main contradiction of the adolescent period is the child’s persistent desire to recognize his personality as adults in the absence of a real opportunity to establish himself among them. D.B. Elkonin believed that the leading activity of children
  14. Adolescence in the light of different concepts
    There are many fundamental studies, hypotheses, and theories of adolescence. The “discovery” of adolescence in psychology is rightfully owned by S. Hall. Based on the theory of recapitulation developed by him, S. Hall believed that the adolescent stage in the development of the individual corresponds to the era of romanticism in the history of mankind and reproduces the era of chaos, when natural aspirations
    Adolescence is called transitional. During this period, significant changes occur in the body of the child. They are associated with the fact that at this time begins the period of puberty. There is an intensive physical development of the child. There is a significant development of the psyche. Significantly developing memory. The child possesses the ability to purposefully and randomly memorize what is studied at school
  16. Myths and realities of adolescence
    I will not be mistaken if I say that of all periods of a child’s development, the most puzzling, difficult and even dangerous is adolescence. This is the period that brings the biggest headache to parents and teachers, ordinary people and law enforcement agencies. This is the same period that gave rise to the concepts of “the problem of fathers and children” and “generational conflict”. Finally, this is the same age for which
  17. Leading activities in adolescence
    Studying the laws of level development of personality in ontogenesis and comparing preschool age with adolescence, D.I. Feldstein emphasizes that adolescence is once again the sensitive side of activity, emphasizing the development of relationships. The desire inherent in a preschooler to be like an adult, as if he were an adult, is transformed in a teenager into a need to be an adult, to be
  18. The main neoplasm of infancy
    Now, after a separate examination of the most important developmental lines in infancy, we can answer the main question regarding the basic neoplasm of infancy and thereby approach the analysis of the most important theories of the initial period of childhood development. So, what new arises as a result of the most complex process of development in infancy? We have already seen that
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