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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE
Adolescence is the most difficult and difficult of all childhood ages, which is a period of personality formation. At this age, the foundations of morality are being formed, social attitudes are formed, attitude towards oneself, towards people, towards society. In addition, at a given age, character traits and the main forms of interpersonal behavior are stabilized. Among the many personality traits inherent in a teenager, we especially emphasize the sense of maturity that forms in him and the "I-concept."
The main motivational lines of this age period associated with an active desire for personal self-improvement are self-knowledge, self-expression and self-affirmation.
After a relatively calm primary school age, adolescence seems stormy and complex. The main feature of adolescence is personal instability. Opposing traits, aspirations, tendencies coexist and struggle with each other, determining the inconsistency of the nature and behavior of the growing child.
One of the personality neoplasms of adolescence is a sense of maturity. Of course, a teenager is still far from true adulthood - both physically, psychologically, and socially. Objectively, he cannot be included in adult life, but strives for it and claims equal rights with adults. A new position is manifested in different areas, most often in appearance, in manners.
Imitation of external forms of behavior. The easiest way to achieve the goal of “being like an adult” is to imitate the external forms of observable behavior.
Adolescents, starting from 12-13 years old (girls a little earlier, boys later), copy the behavior of adults who are respected in their circle. This includes fashion in clothes, hairstyles, jewelry, cosmetics, a special vocabulary, demeanor, ways of relaxation, hobbies, etc. Imitation goes along the lines of entertainment and romantic relationships. Regardless of the content of these relations, the “adult” form is copied: dates, notes, trips out of town, discos, etc.
For adolescent boys, the person who behaves “like a real man”, has the willpower, endurance, courage, courage, endurance, loyalty to friendship, often becomes an imitation. Girls have a tendency to imitate those who look “like a real woman”: older friends, attractive, popular adult women.
In addition to adults, role models on the part of adolescents can be their older peers. The tendency to resemble them, rather than adults in an adolescent environment increases with age.
Teenage boys are very careful about their physical development, and starting from grades V – VI, many of them begin to perform special physical exercises aimed at developing strength and endurance. Girls have more imitation of the external attributes of adulthood: clothing, cosmetics, coquetry techniques, etc.
A teenager, considering himself a unique personality, at the same time strives to look no different from his peers. He may experience the absence of a jacket - the same as everyone else in his company - as a tragedy. Psychologists consider the desire to merge with the group, not stand out in any way, corresponding to the need for security, as a mechanism of psychological defense and call it social mimicry.
Feeling of adulthood. Along with the external manifestations of adulthood, a sense of adulthood also arises - the adolescent’s attitude to himself as an adult, his perception, sense of self to some extent as an adult. The sense of adulthood becomes the central neoplasm of adolescence.
How does a teenager feel mature? He claims to be equal in relations with elders and goes to conflicts, defending his "adult" position. The sense of maturity is also manifested in the desire for independence, the desire to protect some aspects of their life from parental intervention.
In addition, their own tastes, views, evaluations, their own line of behavior appear. The teenager defends them with fervor, even despite the disapproval of others. Since everything is unstable in adolescence, attitudes can change in a couple of weeks, but the child will be equally emotional to defend the opposite point of view.
The development of adulthood in its various manifestations depends on the sphere of self-affirmation of the adolescent.
This may be a relationship with peers, the use of free time, various activities, household chores. It is also important that his formal independence, the external, apparent side of adulthood, satisfies, or real independence is needed.
But there are also truly valuable options for adulthood, favorable for the personal development of a teenager. This is an inclusion in adult intellectual activity when a child is interested in a certain area of science or art, deeply engaged in self-education. Or taking care of the family, participating in solving both complex and daily routine problems, helping those who need it — a younger brother, a mother who is tired at work, or a sick grandmother. However, only a small part of adolescents reaches a high level of development of moral consciousness, and few are able to take responsibility for the well-being of others. More common in our time is social infantilism.
I am the concept. At the end of adolescence, on the border with early adolescence, self-image stabilizes and form an integral system - “I-concept”. “I-concept” is a system of internally coordinated representations of oneself, images of “I”.
In some children, the “I-concept” can be formed later, in high school age. But in any case, this is the most important stage in the development of self-awareness.
Physical "I", ie ideas of one’s own external attractiveness, ideas of one’s mind, abilities in different areas, strength of character, sociability, kindness and other qualities, when combined, form a large layer of “I-concepts” - the so-called real “I”.
“Self-concept” includes three components: cognitive, evaluative, and behavioral.
Knowing yourself, your various qualities leads to the formation of the cognitive component of "I-conception." The evaluation component is related to the fact that it is important for the child not only to know what he really is, but also how significant his individual characteristics are. Assessment of one’s qualities depends on the value system that has developed mainly due to the influence of family and peers. Different children therefore experience the lack of beauty, brilliant intelligence or physical strength in different ways. In addition, a certain style of behavior should correspond to self-image. A girl who considers herself charming, behaves very differently than her peer, who finds herself ugly, but very smart.
In addition to the real "I", the "I-concept" includes the "I" -perfect. With a high level of claims and insufficient awareness of their capabilities, the ideal "I" can be very different from the real one. Then the gap experienced by the teenager between the ideal image and his actual position leads to self-doubt, which outwardly can be expressed in resentment, stubbornness, aggressiveness. When the ideal image seems achievable, it encourages self-education.
Teenagers not only dream about what they will be in the near future, but also strive to develop the desired qualities in themselves. If the boy wants to become strong and agile, he enters the sports section, if he wants to be erudite, he begins to read fiction and scientific literature.
The general logic of the development of all volitional qualities can be expressed as follows: from the ability to manage oneself, concentrate efforts, withstand and endure heavy loads, to the ability to manage activities, to achieve high results in it.
According to this logic, the methods of development of volitional qualities are improved. At first, a teenager simply admires them from other people, in a good way envies those who possess these qualities (10-11 years). Then the teenager declares a desire to have such qualities in himself (11-12 years) and, finally, proceeds to their self-education (12-13 years). The most active period of voluntary self-education in adolescents is considered the age of 13 to 14 years.
In adolescence, the formation of a system of personal values that determines the content of a teenager’s activity, the sphere of his communication, the selectivity of attitude to people, the assessment of these people and self-esteem.
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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE
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