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Leading activities in adolescence

The teenager continues to be a schoolboy; educational activity remains relevant, but psychologically recedes into the background. The main contradiction of the adolescent period is the child’s persistent desire to recognize his personality as adults in the absence of a real opportunity to establish himself among them.

D.B. Elkonin believed that the leading activity of children of this age is communication with peers. It is at the beginning of adolescence that communication activities, conscious experimentation with one’s own relationships with other people (finding friends, clarifying relationships, conflicts and reconciliation, changing companies) stand out in a relatively independent area of ​​life. The main need of the period - to find one's place in society, to be “significant” - is realized in the community of peers.

In adolescents, the possibility of broad communication with peers determines the attractiveness of activities and interests. If a teenager cannot take a satisfactory place in the communication system in the classroom, he “leaves” the school both psychologically and even literally. The dynamics of motives for communicating with peers throughout adolescence: the desire to be among peers, to do something together (10-11 years); motive to take a certain place in the peer team (12-13 years); the desire for autonomy and the search for recognition of the value of self (14-15 years).

In communication with peers, the most diverse aspects of human relations are played, relations are built based on the “code of partnership”, and a desire for deep understanding is realized. Intimate and personal communication with peers is an activity in which the practical development of moral norms and values ​​takes place. In it, self-consciousness is formed as the main neoplasm of the psyche.

Often, even at the basis of poor performance is a violation of communication with peers. At primary school age, the solution to the problem of academic performance often leads a second time to harmonizing the sphere of communication with peers, to increasing self-esteem, etc. In adolescence, it’s just the opposite - relieving tension in communication, weakening personality problems can lead to improved academic performance.

Another point of view regarding the nature of the leading activities of the teenage period belongs to D.I.
Feldstein. He believes that the most important in the mental development of adolescents is socially useful, socially recognized and approved, unpaid activity.

Prosocial activity can be represented as educational, cognitive, production and labor, organizational and social, artistic or sports, but the main thing is the teenager's feeling of the real significance of this activity. The content of the activity is a matter useful to people, to society; the structure is set by the goals of the relationship of adolescents. The motive for the socially useful activity of a teenager is to be personally responsible, independent.

There is socially useful activity in elementary school, but it is not sufficiently developed. Attitude to socially useful activities at different stages of adolescence is changing. Between 9 and 10 years, the child has a desire for self-affirmation and self-recognition in the adult world. The main thing for

10-11 year olds - get an assessment of their capabilities from other people. Hence their focus on classes similar to those performed by adults, the search for activities that have real benefit and receive a public assessment. The accumulation of experience in various types of socially useful activities activates the need for 12–13-year-olds to recognize their rights, to be included in society on the terms of a certain, significant role. At the age of 14-15, a teenager seeks to show his abilities, to take a certain social position, which meets his needs for self-determination. Socially significant activity as a leading type of activity in adolescence must be purposefully formed. A special organization, a special construction of socially useful activity involves reaching a new level of motivation, realizing the teenager’s attitude toward the “I and the society” system, deploying diverse forms of communication, including the highest form of communication with adults based on moral cooperation.

According to Feldstein, the intimate-personal and spontaneous-group nature of communication prevails if there are no opportunities for socially significant and socially approved activities, the opportunities for pedagogical organization of socially useful activities of adolescents are missed.
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Leading activities in adolescence

  1. Leading activities in adolescence
    Studying the laws of level development of personality in ontogenesis and comparing preschool age with adolescence, D.I. Feldstein emphasizes that adolescence is once again the sensitive side of activity, emphasizing the development of relationships. The desire inherent in a preschooler to be like an adult, as if he were an adult, is transformed in a teenager into a need to be an adult, to be
  2. Leading activities as a teenager
    In psychological periodizations DB. Elkonina and A.N. Leontiev leading educational activities recognized as a professional and educational activity. Despite the fact that in many cases the young man continues to remain a schoolboy, educational activities in high school should acquire a new orientation and new content, oriented towards the future. It's about selective
  3. Leading activities and psychological neoplasms of age
    The adolescent period itself is rather heterogeneous in its psychological content and significance for the adolescent. It is unlikely that anyone will argue that students in the 6th and 8th grades are very similar to each other in their psychological appearance. At the same time, both of them are teenagers. Therefore, within adolescence, it is customary to distinguish the younger adolescent (10-13 years old), or grades 5-6, and the senior
  4. Leading activities in primary school age
    The leading activity of a primary school student is educational activity. From the moment a child enters school, she begins to mediate the entire system of his relations [14]. In the opinion of D. B. Elkonin, her role is a priority because, firstly, through her the main relations of the child with society are realized; secondly, they carry out the formation as the main qualities of the personality of a schoolchild
  5. Leading activities as a teenager
    The leading activity in early adolescence is professional self-determination. The psychological basis for self-determination in early youth is primarily the need of a young man to take the internal position of an adult, to become aware of himself as a member of society, to define himself in the world, that is, to understand himself and his abilities along with understanding his place and purpose in life [10 ]. Other
  6. Understanding Leading Activities in Adulthood
    It is quite obvious that the idea of ​​leading activities, formulated by A. N. Leontyev and D. B. Elkonin, is uniquely determined mainly for the period of childhood. In adulthood, this should, apparently, be understood as the main goal of the life path, in relation to which other activities are saturated with meaning, personality develops and mental processes change. FROM
  7. The game as a preschool activity
    The game has a socio-historical origin. In the primitive tribal society, where the child was directly involved in the work of adults, role-playing games were absent. According to ethnographic research, in primitive cultures, children only occasionally playfully play some areas of adult life, those that are inaccessible to them (“rest”, “sex”). The game has the function of overcoming
  8. Learning activities - leading in primary school age
    When he arrives at school, the child finds himself in a new social situation of development and is faced with a new activity, which becomes the main one. If until this time in all previous years, the main subjects of the social situation of development were “a child - an adult,” then with the arrival of a child in school, it differentiates: child - adult child - teacher child - parents Situation
    Adolescence is associated with the restructuring of the child's body - puberty. Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later, a puberty crisis can occur at 11 or 13 years old. Beginning with a crisis, the entire period is usually difficult for both the child and adults close to him. Therefore, adolescence is sometimes called protracted
    The boundaries of adolescence are quite uncertain (from 9-11 to 14-15 years). Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later. The social situation of development Adolescence “begins” with a change in the social situation of development. In psychology, this period is called a transitional, difficult, critical age. This age was investigated by many prominent psychologists. First
  12. Adolescence (11-15 years)
    Adolescence is associated with the restructuring of the child's body - puberty. And although the lines of mental and physiological development do not go parallel, the boundaries of this period are rather vague. Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later, a puberty crisis can occur at 11 and 13 years old. Beginning with a crisis, the entire period is usually difficult for the child,
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