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Leading activities in adolescence
The teenager continues to be a schoolboy; educational activity remains relevant, but psychologically recedes into the background. The main contradiction of the adolescent period is the child’s persistent desire to recognize his personality as adults in the absence of a real opportunity to establish himself among them.
D.B. Elkonin believed that the leading activity of children of this age is communication with peers. It is at the beginning of adolescence that communication activities, conscious experimentation with one’s own relationships with other people (finding friends, clarifying relationships, conflicts and reconciliation, changing companies) stand out in a relatively independent area of life. The main need of the period - to find one's place in society, to be “significant” - is realized in the community of peers.
In adolescents, the possibility of broad communication with peers determines the attractiveness of activities and interests. If a teenager cannot take a satisfactory place in the communication system in the classroom, he “leaves” the school both psychologically and even literally. The dynamics of motives for communicating with peers throughout adolescence: the desire to be among peers, to do something together (10-11 years); motive to take a certain place in the peer team (12-13 years); the desire for autonomy and the search for recognition of the value of self (14-15 years).
In communication with peers, the most diverse aspects of human relations are played, relations are built based on the “code of partnership”, and a desire for deep understanding is realized. Intimate and personal communication with peers is an activity in which the practical development of moral norms and values takes place. In it, self-consciousness is formed as the main neoplasm of the psyche.
Often, even at the basis of poor performance is a violation of communication with peers. At primary school age, the solution to the problem of academic performance often leads a second time to harmonizing the sphere of communication with peers, to increasing self-esteem, etc. In adolescence, it’s just the opposite - relieving tension in communication, weakening personality problems can lead to improved academic performance.
Another point of view regarding the nature of the leading activities of the teenage period belongs to D.I.
Feldstein. He believes that the most important in the mental development of adolescents is socially useful, socially recognized and approved, unpaid activity.
Prosocial activity can be represented as educational, cognitive, production and labor, organizational and social, artistic or sports, but the main thing is the teenager's feeling of the real significance of this activity. The content of the activity is a matter useful to people, to society; the structure is set by the goals of the relationship of adolescents. The motive for the socially useful activity of a teenager is to be personally responsible, independent.
There is socially useful activity in elementary school, but it is not sufficiently developed. Attitude to socially useful activities at different stages of adolescence is changing. Between 9 and 10 years, the child has a desire for self-affirmation and self-recognition in the adult world. The main thing for
10-11 year olds - get an assessment of their capabilities from other people. Hence their focus on classes similar to those performed by adults, the search for activities that have real benefit and receive a public assessment. The accumulation of experience in various types of socially useful activities activates the need for 12–13-year-olds to recognize their rights, to be included in society on the terms of a certain, significant role. At the age of 14-15, a teenager seeks to show his abilities, to take a certain social position, which meets his needs for self-determination. Socially significant activity as a leading type of activity in adolescence must be purposefully formed. A special organization, a special construction of socially useful activity involves reaching a new level of motivation, realizing the teenager’s attitude toward the “I and the society” system, deploying diverse forms of communication, including the highest form of communication with adults based on moral cooperation.
According to Feldstein, the intimate-personal and spontaneous-group nature of communication prevails if there are no opportunities for socially significant and socially approved activities, the opportunities for pedagogical organization of socially useful activities of adolescents are missed.
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Leading activities in adolescence
- Leading activities in adolescence
Studying the laws of level development of personality in ontogenesis and comparing preschool age with adolescence, D.I. Feldstein emphasizes that adolescence is once again the sensitive side of activity, emphasizing the development of relationships. The desire inherent in a preschooler to be like an adult, as if he were an adult, is transformed in a teenager into a need to be an adult, to be
- Leading activities as a teenager
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