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Leading activities in adolescence

Studying the laws of level development of personality in ontogenesis and comparing preschool age with adolescence, D.I. Feldstein emphasizes that adolescence is once again the sensitive side of activity, emphasizing the development of relationships. The desire inherent in a preschooler to be like an adult, as if he were an adult, is transformed in a teenager into a need to be an adult, to be independent, to be significant in the adult world, the need to realize oneself as a person different from other people [12].

The teenager is no longer satisfied with the position of the student, which he occupied in the elementary grades. Formed on the basis of educational activities (the subject-practical side of the activity), the children's ability to generalize determines the teenager's ability to build generalizations already in a more complex activity in assimilating the norms of human relationships. Trying to occupy a significant place in society, to establish his new social position, he seeks to go beyond the framework of student affairs into some new sphere, which makes it possible to prove himself, to assert himself. Therefore, adolescents activate intimate-personal and spontaneous group communication both at school and outside it [12].

D.I. Feldstein points out that the emphasis on these circumstances led some psychologists in the sixties to the idea that communication, the subject of which is another person, is a companion, and the content is the construction of relationships and actions within them [12]. So, in particular, D. B. Elkonin considered communication with peers as a leading activity at this age: “it is thanks to the activity of communication and self-orientation in solving problems of relationships that not only a new level of self-awareness arises, but also its social content deepens” [ 16. S. 320].

D. I. Feldstein emphasizes that L. S. Vygotsky warned against considering communication as “pure communication of souls”. Indeed, the formation of the motivational-need sphere of the personality of a teenager requires the expansion of all forms of communication. However, the expansion and complication of forms and methods of communication cannot be carried out at the level of "I" and "you." And a specific type of activity that ensures the development of relationships among adolescents is a socially recognized and socially approved activity - leading in this period of mental development [12].

As D.I. Feldstein points out, the provision on this type of leading activity in adolescence is determined: firstly, by the features, the nature of the development of adolescent children, who are characterized by an awareness of their growing opportunities, an intense desire for independence, to establish themselves among others, the need in recognition by adults of their rights, their potential capabilities [12].

Secondly, adolescence is a special stage in the development of a child’s social activity.
Activities that ensure the most intensive development of the activity of a teenager, on the one hand, must meet his needs for self-affirmation, and on the other hand, create conditions for the development of certain forms of relations. But not just relations of understanding, mutual understanding with comrades, but recognition of the real significance of a teenager as a full member of society. The participation of adolescents in socially recognized and socially approved activities provides adult recognition and at the same time creates opportunities for building a diverse relationship with peers [12].

Thirdly, it’s not just about the social orientation of various types of activities of adolescents and not about the organization of their various activities and activities at school now, but about the special construction of a special type of socially approved activity, a type that is a condition, a way of personality formation and necessary component of the multifaceted activities of the child, organized in the educational process [12].

Socially recognized and socially approved activity in this sense acts, on the one hand, as a condition and means of preparing adolescents for the higher forms of this adult activity, constituting an organic part of social relations. On the other hand, the prosocial activity of adolescents represents a new level of development of the child’s activity in assimilating motives, goals of activity, norms of human relationships, its specific stage, sensitive to adolescence, since it most closely contains the development trends of a teenager who seeks to evaluate himself in the system: “I and my participation in society,” “I and my usefulness to society.” Moreover, the “zone of proximal development”, which helps to determine the child’s tomorrow, is the ideological meaning of socially approved activities that satisfy the basic needs of a teenager by installation in society [12].

Socially recognized and approved activities provide opportunities for expanding all forms of communication of a teenager and reaching his highest, most significant level of communication with adults - on the basis of moral cooperation. Not communication as a craving for a companion, but prosocial activity, which ensures the development of various forms of communication, the expansion of communication in the system of “I and many (near and far) people,” “I and society” is the leading activity that determines the most important changes in the psychological characteristics of the personality of a teenager [12].
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Leading activities in adolescence

  1. Leading activities in adolescence
    The teenager continues to be a schoolboy; educational activity remains relevant, but psychologically recedes into the background. The main contradiction of the adolescent period is the child’s persistent desire to recognize his personality as adults in the absence of a real opportunity to establish himself among them. D.B. Elkonin believed that the leading activity of children
  2. Leading activities as a teenager
    In psychological periodizations DB. Elkonina and A.N. Leontiev leading educational activities recognized as a professional and educational activity. Despite the fact that in many cases the young man continues to remain a schoolboy, educational activities in high school should acquire a new orientation and new content, oriented towards the future. It's about selective
  3. Leading activities and psychological neoplasms of age
    The adolescent period itself is rather heterogeneous in its psychological content and significance for the adolescent. It is unlikely that anyone will argue that students in the 6th and 8th grades are very similar to each other in their psychological appearance. At the same time, both of them are teenagers. Therefore, within adolescence, it is customary to distinguish the younger adolescent (10-13 years old), or grades 5-6, and the senior
  4. Leading activities in primary school age
    The leading activity of a primary school student is educational activity. From the moment a child enters school, she begins to mediate the entire system of his relations [14]. In the opinion of D. B. Elkonin, her role is a priority because, firstly, through her the main relations of the child with society are realized; secondly, they carry out the formation as the main qualities of the personality of a schoolchild
  5. Leading activities as a teenager
    The leading activity in early adolescence is professional self-determination. The psychological basis for self-determination in early youth is primarily the need of a young man to take the internal position of an adult, to become aware of himself as a member of society, to define himself in the world, that is, to understand himself and his abilities along with understanding his place and purpose in life [10 ]. Other
  6. Understanding Leading Activities in Adulthood
    It is quite obvious that the idea of ​​leading activities, formulated by A. N. Leontyev and D. B. Elkonin, is uniquely determined mainly for the period of childhood. In adulthood, this should, apparently, be understood as the main goal of the life path, in relation to which other activities are saturated with meaning, personality develops and mental processes change. WITH
  7. The game as a preschool activity
    The game has a socio-historical origin. In the primitive tribal society, where the child was directly involved in the work of adults, role-playing games were absent. According to ethnographic research, in primitive cultures, children only occasionally playfully play some areas of adult life, those that are inaccessible to them (“rest”, “sex”). The game has the function of overcoming
  8. Learning activities - leading in primary school age
    When he arrives at school, the child finds himself in a new social situation of development and is faced with a new activity, which becomes the main one. If until this time in all previous years the main subjects of the social situation of development were “a child - an adult,” then with the arrival of a child in school it differentiates: child - adult child - teacher child - parents Situation
    Adolescence is associated with the restructuring of the child's body - puberty. Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later, a puberty crisis can occur at 11 or 13 years old. Beginning with a crisis, the entire period is usually difficult for both the child and adults close to him. Therefore, adolescence is sometimes called protracted
    The boundaries of adolescence are quite uncertain (from 9-11 to 14-15 years). Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later. The social situation of development Adolescence “begins” with a change in the social situation of development. In psychology, this period is called a transitional, difficult, critical age. This age was investigated by many prominent psychologists. First
  12. Adolescence (11-15 years)
    Adolescence is associated with the restructuring of the child's body - puberty. And although the lines of mental and physiological development do not go parallel, the boundaries of this period are rather vague. Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later, a puberty crisis can occur at 11 and 13 years old. Beginning with a crisis, the entire period is usually difficult for the child,
    Adolescence is associated with the restructuring of the child's body - puberty. And although the lines of mental and physiological development do not go parallel, the boundaries of this period vary significantly. Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later, a puberty crisis can occur at 11 or 13 years old. Beginning with a crisis, the entire period is usually difficult for the child,
  14. Psychological neoplasms of adolescence
    Cognitive development in adolescence. The younger adolescence is characterized by an increase in cognitive activity (the “peak of curiosity” falls on 11-12 years), the expansion of cognitive interests. In adolescence, the intellectual processes of a teenager are actively being improved. In Western psychology, the development of intelligence in adolescence is considered with
  15. The crisis of adolescence
    A detailed analysis of foreign concepts of the causes and manifestations of the crisis of adolescence was carried out by D. I. Feldstein [15]. He indicates that the first who drew attention to a new social phenomenon - the teenage period of development, was J. Zh. Rousseau. In his novel Emil, published in 1762, he first drew attention to the psychological significance that this period has in human life. Russo
  16. ADOLESCENCE (13 - 16 years old)
    The adolescent period is not distinguished in all societies, but only with a high level of civilization. Industrial development leads to the fact that more and more time is required for public and professional education of children and, accordingly, the expansion of the framework of adolescence. The literature describes under different names: adolescent, transitional, puberty, puberty,
    Adolescence is called transitional. During this period, significant changes occur in the body of the child. They are associated with the fact that at this time begins the period of puberty. There is an intensive physical development of the child. There is a significant development of the psyche. Significantly developing memory. The child possesses the ability to purposefully and randomly memorize what is studied at school
    Adolescence is the most difficult and difficult of all childhood ages, which is a period of personality formation. At this age, the foundations of morality are being formed, social attitudes are formed, attitude towards oneself, towards people, towards society. In addition, at a given age, character traits and the main forms of interpersonal behavior are stabilized. Among the many personality traits inherent in
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