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Leading activities in adolescence
Studying the laws of level development of personality in ontogenesis and comparing preschool age with adolescence, D.I. Feldstein emphasizes that adolescence is once again the sensitive side of activity, emphasizing the development of relationships. The desire inherent in a preschooler to be like an adult, as if he were an adult, is transformed in a teenager into a need to be an adult, to be independent, to be significant in the adult world, the need to realize oneself as a person different from other people .
The teenager is no longer satisfied with the position of the student, which he occupied in the elementary grades. Formed on the basis of educational activities (the subject-practical side of the activity), the children's ability to generalize determines the teenager's ability to build generalizations already in a more complex activity in assimilating the norms of human relationships. Trying to occupy a significant place in society, to establish his new social position, he seeks to go beyond the framework of student affairs into some new sphere, which makes it possible to prove himself, to assert himself. Therefore, adolescents activate intimate-personal and spontaneous group communication both at school and outside it .
D.I. Feldstein points out that the emphasis on these circumstances led some psychologists in the sixties to the idea that communication, the subject of which is another person, is a companion, and the content is the construction of relationships and actions within them . So, in particular, D. B. Elkonin considered communication with peers as a leading activity at this age: “it is thanks to the activity of communication and self-orientation in solving problems of relationships that not only a new level of self-awareness arises, but also its social content deepens” [ 16. S. 320].
D. I. Feldstein emphasizes that L. S. Vygotsky warned against considering communication as “pure communication of souls”. Indeed, the formation of the motivational-need sphere of the personality of a teenager requires the expansion of all forms of communication. However, the expansion and complication of forms and methods of communication cannot be carried out at the level of "I" and "you." And a specific type of activity that ensures the development of relationships among adolescents is a socially recognized and socially approved activity - leading in this period of mental development .
As D.I. Feldstein points out, the provision on this type of leading activity in adolescence is determined: firstly, by the features, the nature of the development of adolescent children, who are characterized by an awareness of their growing opportunities, an intense desire for independence, to establish themselves among others, the need in recognition by adults of their rights, their potential capabilities .
Secondly, adolescence is a special stage in the development of a child’s social activity.
Activities that ensure the most intensive development of the activity of a teenager, on the one hand, must meet his needs for self-affirmation, and on the other hand, create conditions for the development of certain forms of relations. But not just relations of understanding, mutual understanding with comrades, but recognition of the real significance of a teenager as a full member of society. The participation of adolescents in socially recognized and socially approved activities provides adult recognition and at the same time creates opportunities for building a diverse relationship with peers .
Thirdly, it’s not just about the social orientation of various types of activities of adolescents and not about the organization of their various activities and activities at school now, but about the special construction of a special type of socially approved activity, a type that is a condition, a way of personality formation and necessary component of the multifaceted activities of the child, organized in the educational process .
Socially recognized and socially approved activity in this sense acts, on the one hand, as a condition and means of preparing adolescents for the higher forms of this adult activity, constituting an organic part of social relations. On the other hand, the prosocial activity of adolescents represents a new level of development of the child’s activity in assimilating motives, goals of activity, norms of human relationships, its specific stage, sensitive to adolescence, since it most closely contains the development trends of a teenager who seeks to evaluate himself in the system: “I and my participation in society,” “I and my usefulness to society.” Moreover, the “zone of proximal development”, which helps to determine the child’s tomorrow, is the ideological meaning of socially approved activities that satisfy the basic needs of a teenager by installation in society .
Socially recognized and approved activities provide opportunities for expanding all forms of communication of a teenager and reaching his highest, most significant level of communication with adults - on the basis of moral cooperation. Not communication as a craving for a companion, but prosocial activity, which ensures the development of various forms of communication, the expansion of communication in the system of “I and many (near and far) people,” “I and society” is the leading activity that determines the most important changes in the psychological characteristics of the personality of a teenager .
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Leading activities in adolescence
- Leading activities in adolescence
The teenager continues to be a schoolboy; educational activity remains relevant, but psychologically recedes into the background. The main contradiction of the adolescent period is the child’s persistent desire to recognize his personality as adults in the absence of a real opportunity to establish himself among them. D.B. Elkonin believed that the leading activity of children
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